Hence, the capacity to be an expert practitioner is likely to be quite situational and arises through engagement in those circumstances Billett, a. Therefore, in these ways, the circumstances of work are central to its enactment, remaking and transformation, as well as learning about and for it. The important point here is to understanding learning through practice is that the particular activities and interactions that comprise what individuals will encounter and from which they learn.
As discussed later, the organisation of experiences from which individuals learn — the practice curriculum — in providing opportunities to observe, listen and practice are shaped by these situational factors. Therefore, more than being a set of social circumstances, the particular circumstance of work is central to the experiences provided for individuals to engage and learn through practice, as these two processes co-occur.
This includes who is allowed to engage in it, what kinds of activities and interactions are afforded, and for what reasons, and the kinds of guidance from more experienced co-workers: i. How these factors are engaged with by those individuals who work and learn stands as a key premise for learning through practice.
Hence, in the following section the processes of learning through and for occupations in the circumstances of work are elaborated. This learning is proposed as being interdependent between individuals who engage as learners, workers and practitioners in the circumstances of work and enact, remake and transform that practice and, learn from it, on the one hand, and the social and physical circumstances comprising those circumstances on the other Billett, Rather than proposing these as dualisms between these personal and institutional factors, these are held to as a dualities that are interdependent, albeit relationally.
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To be precise, institutional facts Searle, such as occupational practices need human agents to enact, remake and transform them as requirements change. Yet, at the same time, individuals require those practices to meet their economic and societal needs, albeit in personally distinct ways. So, they are interdependent. Moreover, to forestall easy and unhelpful criticisms, the personal here is seen as being the epitome of the social.
Consequently, how individuals engage with the circumstances of work is shaped by personally unique socially-shaped i. This experiencing is mediated by what Valsiner e. The relational dimensions of this interdependence are those between institutional and personal facts comprising the ongoing process of uniquely socially-shaped individuals engaging with what they experience when enacting, remaking and transforming their occupation in a particular set of circumstances.
Much understanding of learning through socially-derived practices e. Anthropologists are concerned about how cultural practices are formed, enacted and transformed, and learnt by those who practice them, and have provided important insights about the organisation, practices and enactment of experiences and processes through which occupational capacities are learnt and extends to identifying ways in which these kinds of learning are supported Goody, ; Jordan, ; Pelissier, ; Scribner, Some anthropologists have also attempted to understand how these experiences actually lead to the human processes of learning these practices.
They note the need to go beyond observable individual or cultural, societal and institutional purposes and practices. Instead, there is a requirement to also understand the internal processes of how people come to learn, beneath the skin, through participating in activities and interactions in cultural milieu. When individuals engage in socially-derived goal-directed activities more than completing that task, there is a legacy i.
Yet, to understand this process of learning requires accounting for the particular inter-psychological processes that occur when individuals learn in the circumstances of practice and also those that comprise intra-psychological processes through which individuals come to construe and construct their learning. That is, we need to know how individuals process what is experienced socially. Beyond focussing on declarative knowledge i. Work tasks comprise engagement in intentional goal-directed activities requiring conceptualisation, use of procedures and engaging the body in securing those outcomes that are the very processes of extending what we know i.
As Ryle proposed, key qualities of non-declarative learning comprises much of what individuals use and engage when participating in goal directed activities, such as paid work. Indeed, to perform tasks effectively requires opportunities to repeatedly rehearse them. Consequently, the opportunity to observe and engage in practising those activities and in circumstances where their applicability can be monitored and appraised by learners and others is central to learning through increasingly mature approximations of modelled tasks.
It is these opportunities that can be a distinguishing quality of learning through engaging in the work activities. Indeed, anthropological studies have consistently proposed that much of learning in non-school situations occurs in these ways Jordan, ; Lave, ; Pelissier, , and is supported by more recent accounts Jordan, ; Marchand, Yet, such a model of didactics is largely premised upon the learners and their capacities to observe, imitate and then hone their performance.
As noted, much of this capacity is aligned to development of capacities that are not able to be declared. The Daoist philosopher Zhuangzi BC used a parable of a wheelwright to describe the power of this personally developed and non-declarative form of knowledge, such as haptic capacity, over what is found in and learnt through books i. I see things in terms of my own work. When it is either too slow or too fast, I can feel it in my hand and respond to it from my heart. My mouth cannot describe it in words, but there is something there. I cannot teach it to my son, and my son cannot learn it from me.
So, I have gone on for seventy years, growing old chiselling wheels. The men of old died in possession of what they could not transmit. So it follows that what you are reading are their dregs. Indeed, some suggest that, observation and imitation are insufficient, and that instruction and guidance is also required to develop the capacities to perform particular tasks.
Gowlland and both note the importance of direct guidance and instruction in the development of skills associated with pottery and porcelain manufacture. They report how an experienced worker or master potter intervenes and even hold the hands of novices to assist them achieve the kind of shapes that are required.
Achieving the kind of haptic capacity, which is central to many forms of craft and human service e. It has to be learnt. Yet, the point here is that it may be possible for such learning can be assisted by others e. Gowlland, and Singleton, propose, albeit using pedagogic practices that are targeted and suited to the circumstances of work. Indeed, given all of the discussion above, it seems now appropriate to turn to outlining what constitutes the didactics of practice, as a means of both capturing and progressing the previous discussion.
Such didactics need to be premised on considerations of learning in and through the circumstances of work, rather than those of educational institutions. As noted, a key difference between the learning in the circumstances of work and educational institutions is that, in the former, learning and the work that comprises the principal purposes of the setting co-occur. Hence, opportunities for learning and ways of engaging are shaped by requirements and situational factors where they are enacted: the circumstances of work.
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Yet, it is imprecise, unhelpful and incorrect to view these circumstances as being informal, ad hoc or non-formal because are structured by these requirements, provide access to learning through relevant experiences and can lead to adaptable outcomes Billett, Further, there can also be intentional efforts to promote and support learning in these circumstances of work that augment the contributions of the everyday work activities and interactions that freely occur.
Consequently, as a means of proceeding to outline what constitutes these foundations here, considerations of curriculum, pedagogic and epistemological practices that constitute the didactics of practice are advanced in terms of both everyday and intentional practices. It is accepted that there is some overlap across these two ways of ordering an account of these didactics. Yet, they also provide a framework within which to consider how the enactment occurs, can be evaluated and potentially enhanced. This distinction is also identified, within anthropological studies, culturally derived practices that identify certain practices as being learnt through participating in everyday activities and life Marchand, ; Rogoff, , and those associated intentional and organised learning experiences Bunn, ; Gowlland, ; Rogoff, ; Singleton, , and on these bases are discussed here.
These investigations found that, firstly, the circumstances of work provided access to authentic goal-directed work activities and interactions in which workers of different kinds engaged in and from which they learnt. These social and physical settings afforded contributions that provide access to artefacts, informed interlocutors and situationally pertinent goals for achieving and monitoring performance. These activities are of the kind that likely ground cognition Barsalou, and lead to the sorts of learning securing many of the capacities required for performance in that setting, because of the personal legacy i.
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Put simply, the evidence consistently suggested that working and learning co-occurred and were shaped by what was afforded workers and how they elected to engage with what was afforded them. Moreover, these authentic circumstances also assist i. This mediation includes examples of completed or half worked tasks that become models and goals to inform and provides bases for individuals to moderate their own performances. In doing so, they afford forms of distal or indirect guidance that assist learning through processes of observation and imitation. Opportunities provided to repeat and rehearse work tasks also assist in the process of procedural and conceptual development.
Consequently, as such opportunities are often afforded in work settings; these are helpful in supporting learning practices that have their source in the circumstances of work.
That is, situational factors shape performance requirements that cannot be understood or responded to effectively without knowing and experiencing these requirements Billett, a. The richness of these experiences also assists the process of grounding cognition and how individuals process what they experience Barsalou, Because individuals need to come to know situationally-specific requirements, the ability to comprehend and monitor how their approximations of workplace tasks are able to realise those goals are supportive of this kind of learning Billett, c , as they need to be experienced and learnt, and likely cannot be taught.
Fourthly, these authentic activities are reported to be highly engaging and worthy of effort by workers of all kinds and across sectors because they are associated with activities with which learners want to perform effectively Billett a. Through such engagements, effective i. No amount of invitational qualities or support will constitute an effective learning environment unless individuals elect to effortfully engage with what is afforded them.
Engagement in goal-directed activities and interactions in the circumstances of work provide bases for engaging in and learning about and how work activities occur. They can also provide the vehicle through which understandings develop and approximations of procedural competence can improve, be refined and honed Sun, et al. This conceptual and procedural development is also supported by engagement with other and more experienced co-workers who can assist learners develop the knowledge they will not secure through discovery alone.
As noted, the knowledge required to be learnt arises through history and culture and is manifested in particular circumstances e. It is also unhelpful and unnecessary for individuals to engage in reinventing knowledge that has evolved over time and has been refined and honed in response to changing occupational requirements. Yet, also evident in these processes of learning through practice is the foremost and explicit need for learners to engage actively in the learning process and seeking to secure the kinds of knowledge they need to perform effectively. By curriculum, is meant the arrangement of experiences in which individuals engage to access and secure the knowledge required for work performance.
The pedagogic practices are those contributions that serve to enhance or enrich the learning process albeit provided by more experienced workers, co-workers and also the activities in which individuals engage. Then, is the means by which individuals exercise their agency in construing and constructing the knowledge afforded them: their personal epistemologies. Each of these is now briefly discussed in terms of what everyday work activities and interactions. This conception provides a strong basis for understanding how curriculum practices are constituted in the circumstances of work.
She noted that these novices progressed through a series of work activities that were structured to support the learning of tailoring. The structuring of these activities allowed the apprentices to initially understand the goals e. Progression along this path of activities was premised on being able to effectively complete tasks of increasing difficulty and that had higher error cost i.
Similar arrangements have been identified in other cultural practices and occupational fields including the manufacturing of pottery in Japan Singleton, , the building of minarets Marchand, , in the production and packaging of food products Billett, , and how hairdressers learnt their skills in hairdressing salons Billett, As Lodge writes of learning crafts in Hellenic Greece:. At first the imitation would be playful and childish, carried out with such toy tools as a child could handle. Later it would become more deliberately purposive.
Lodge For instance, Marchand refers to the earlier development of understanding about stone, cement, structure and work organisation later assisting apprentice minaret builders move to roles that ultimately permit them have to the proximity to and then engage in constructing the most important parts of the minaret i. In my own work life, when first employed by a large clothing manufacturing company as a trainee designer, my initial tasks in the design room were ordered in a similar way.
Firstly, I was given interlining patterns to prepare. These components have to sit within the cloth components, so there were clear parameters I had to work within, yet smoothness of cut was not crucial, and small inaccuracies were tolerable. In addition, this task allowed me to learn to use pattern shears accurately and effectively.
Next, I was permitted to prepare pattern components for waistcoat and jacket linings. These components need to be prepared in a way to not constrain the outer components of garments; so again, there were particular requirements to be met. Next, I was allowed to prepare patterns for cloth components starting with small component pieces before moving onto larger ones e. Only after much practice was I permitted to prepare collar components, which was seen as being the most intricate and also the most prone to significant consequences if made incorrectly.
However, before working in the design room I was engaged in a process of learning about the manufacturing processes within this company through an intentional learning experience in three manufacturing areas see below. It is this ordering through the curriculum that provides and sequences the activities and interactions from which individuals learn their occupational capacities. As noted, much of the learning processes in work comprise observation, imitation and practice by learners. Close indirect sources of learning support e. This pedagogy can also be enriched by particular work activities through which individuals come to engage, utilise, articulate, test, predict outcomes and monitor their progress.
For instance, particularly rich pedagogic work activities are those meetings where workers have to discuss work activities, evaluate their approaches and consider the viability of options. These activities permit novices to engage in a process of aligning and reconciling what they know with what is being discussed or enacted, and then construct responses as a result of these interactions.
At these handovers, there is often a five stage process that is inherently pedagogic. Firstly, the patient is discussed in terms of their age, gender, circumstance and capacities etc. Then, the condition or conditions of the patient are stated, followed by the treatments they have been prescribed and are being progressed. All this comprises a rich pedagogic experience that affords opportunities for novices to engage in different ways and with particular levels of understanding and knowledge of procedures. Individuals can align what they know with what is being discussed, evaluate the options being advanced, and then reconcile what they do not know or are uncertain about, and through following and evaluating the discussions also access and make judgements about conceptions, procedures and postulated outcomes.
Together, these experiences can assist in processes of knowledge construction associated with their viability Van Lehn, or to overcome disequilibrium with understanding Carlson, Just as in education, learning through the circumstance of work are merely invitations to change.
The kinds and qualities of learning that arises are largely dependent upon how individuals take up those invitations. Repeatedly, the importance of effortful engagement in learning in the circumstances of work has been emphasised in the studies reviewed here and for reasons mentioned above about self, competence and basis for peer respect. Moreover, there are also instances in which individuals have exercised extreme levels of agency to direct their learning in and through work to secure personal goals associated with employment, advancement or achievement Billett, That is, the intentions for learning are shaped by the need to achieve workplace goals, being seen by others as being a worthy worker and recognised as such Chan, and directed by what they are assent to being their vocation.
However, in the past, and perhaps increasingly now, it is necessary to provide intentional experiences and support to assist access to and guidance by more experienced co-workers. Some reasons that such support has been necessary in the past and now through the use of intentional curriculum, pedagogy and epistemological practices in workplace settings are to: i meet the demands and complexity of the knowledge to be learnt, ii overcome the limitations of learning through practice that have been identified, and iii address the emerging requirements for effective work practice.
In the next and final section, these intentional premises for the didactics of practices are set out. For instance, Bunn identified that although many practices Kyrgyz nomads needed were learnt through participation in them, others demanded intentional and structured forms of preparation.
Some of these learning processes were long term and required particular and specific processes of learning e. Moreover, the ability to access models in the form of skilled practitioners and have the opportunity to engage in joint or collaborative work with them aided the potency of these learning experiences beyond the knowledge that can secured through discovery alone.
Then, there is the need to overcome the limitations of learning in the everyday circumstances of work. Studies investigating learning through work across a range of occupations and industry sectors, identified some commonly occurring limitations of learning in the circumstances of work Billett, b. These limitations can be categorised into those associated with outcomes and processes. These two sets of limitations are now briefly discussed.
Many workers also reported learning to undertake work tasks, but not understanding why they are doing them i. This lack of understanding limited how they subsequently engaged in these and other work tasks. For instance, in a food processing plant, some workers were not fully aware of processes that occurred later in the production process. Yet, this lack of awareness inhibited some production workers understanding of the work goals they were collectively trying to achieve. But, more fundamentally, many concepts underpinning effective work such as hygiene, force, power, structural vectors, the internal workings of machines and other materials that workers engage with e.
Therefore, they became difficult to learn through everyday work activities. In this way, it was found that not all forms of the knowledge required for work performance can be accessed in the circumstances of work because they cannot be observed, experienced and engaged with, and therefore learnt.
Noteworthy here is that, increasingly, the workings of technology and processes that underpin many contemporary forms of work are opaque and not easily accessible. Butler describes this paradoxical nature of the scene of address as follows: And as I make a sequence and link one event with another, offering motivations to illuminate the bridge, making patterns clear, identifying certain events or moments of recognition as pivotal, even marking certain recurring patterns as fundamental, I do not merely communicate something about my past, though that is doubtless part of what I do.
Accounting for Maternal Responsibility Very early on in her interview, Faith is faced with an important dilemma: how to account for the fact that her children, for a time, had been living apart from her. She reflects on this development in the following way: I think probably, eventually [the neurologist] would have helped my son. Interviewer : You do so much caregiving for Allan. I wish somebody was. I get very lonely.
You are so designed to be married. I wish that I had somebody else. You know, but it would take a very special person to be a father to Allan. I know so many people that get married again, and it is just a disaster for their kids, and I just think that they are so selfish. But my child comes first. Narrative Interruptions At several points in her interview, Faith alludes to unspeakable troubles, especially those pertaining to her status as single mother.
Interviewer : How long have you been a single parent? Tell me about that. Can we pause? Interviewer : We sure can.
Interviewer : How old were your children at the time he left? Faith : My daughter was three and my son was one. Interviewer : No wonder you feel overwhelmed. And a lot of stuff has happened. A lot of stuff has happened. A lot of stuff has gone down. I had to go through. I was raped. My father passed away. There was just—there are things that I would rather not talk about. Interviewer : Sure. She says: Because they prevent him from going to school, which is the number one most important thing.
Conclusion In this paper, I have argued that illness narratives, as told within the interview encounter, are necessarily fragmented, partial and rhetorical in nature. References Agha Asif. Language and Social Relations. Cambridge: University of Cambridge Press; New York: Penguin Books; Qualitative Inquiry. How To Do Things with Words. Caryl Emerson and Michael Holquist, trans. Austin: University of Texas Press. Vern W. McGee, trans.
Bluebond-Langner Myra. Gino Raymond and Matthew Adamson, trans. Briggs Charles. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; Anthropology, Interviewing, and Communicability in Contemporary Society. Current Anthropology. Berkeley: University of California Press; Acts of Meaning. A Rhetoric of Motives. Los Altos, CA: Hermes. Butler Judith. Giving an Account of Oneself. New York: Fordham University Press; Constructing Panic. The Self-Telling Body. Narrative Inquiry.
Language and Body: Transactions in the Construction of Pain. Social Suffering. Wittgenstein and Anthropology.
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Annual Review of Anthropology. Body and Emotion. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press; Linguistic Anthropology. The Audience as Co-Author. Text, Special Issue. Whose Story Is It Anyway? In: Kay Toombs S. Chronic Illness: From Experience to Policy. Bloomington: Indiana University Press; Chicago: University of Chicago Press; Literature and Medicine.
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American Ethnologist. Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum Press; The Illness Narratives. New York: Basic Books; Complaining about Chronic Pain. Social Science and Medicine. Conversations with Phillippe Nemo. Richard Cohen, trans. Pittsburgh: Duquesne University Press. Levinas, Emmanuel Entres Nous. Michael Smith and Barbara Harshav, trans. New York: Columbia University Press. Linde Charlotte. Life Stories: The Creation of Coherence. Oxford: Oxford University Press; After Virtue. New Literary History. Discourse of Medicine: Dialectics of Medical Interviews.
Norwood, NJ: Ablex; A Case Study from India. Medicine and Psychiatry. Walter Kauffman, trans. New York: Random House. Ochs Elinor, Capps Lisa. Narrating the Self. Kathleen Blamey, trans. Chicago: Chicago University Press. Riessman Catherine Kohler. The Sick Who do not Speak.
In: Parkin David. Semantic Anthropology. London: Academic Press; Culture, Medicine, and Psychiatry. A New Language for Psychoanalysis. Entitlement and Empathy in Personal Narrative. Shifters, Linguistic Categories, and Cultural Description. In: Basso Keith, Selby Henry. The tragedy in this is that there are probably many societies throughout the Visayas that had their own variation of the creation story that has simply been lost to time — or perhaps waiting to be discovered.
Many blame the Spanish for the disappearance of ancient beliefs, but then must also use the Spanish documentation to understand it. However, it is also through the Spanish documentation that those belief systems have been pieced together to create a cultural pride and ethnic identity.
The beauty of the Tungkung Langit and Alunsina creation story is that it was documented by a Filipino anthropologist wanting to better understand his culture. More so that the story, along with the Hinilawod Epic , survived Spanish colonization and Catholicism, yet shows ties to other cultural influences. Sure there was war, but it was never about imposing beliefs. Alunsina also appears in the Hinilawod Epic.
In the beginning everything was shapeless and formless. The earth, the sky, the sea, and the air were almost mixed up. In a word, there was only confusion. Then from the depth of this formless void there appeared the god Tungkung Langit and the goddess Alunsina. It was not known just where these two deities came from but it is related by old Bisayan folk that Tungkung Langit fell in love with Alunsina. After he had courted her for many years, they married and made their home in the highest part of heaven. There the water was always warm and the breeze was forever cool.
In this place order and regularity began. Tungkung Langit was a loving, hard-working god. He wanted to impose order over the confused world. He decided to arrange the world so that the heavenly bodies would move regularly. On the other hand, Alunsina was a lazy, jealous, selfish goddess.